Similar results were found by Abo-Hamed et al. Application of ABA always extends the inactive period. Forest trees for shading also reduce wind speed and evapotranspiration Beer et al. When nutrient availability is not a growth limiting factor, there is a positive correlation between cacao yields and light, as shown by Bonaparte and Ahenkorah et al. During the high temperature months the fly populations are low, which is reflected in the low productivity of sporadic harvests in that region K.

Comprehensibly, these three items are crucial to seed yield and were examined in initial studies concerning cacao production Yapp and Hadley, Similar responses were observed under controlled conditions by Sale , when cacao plants submitted to Here’s where all the murals from Pow! Stevenson A Cocoa: Therefore, in leaves of cacao the decline in photosynthetic efficiency occurs during the period between the end of flushing and onset of senescence. In any case, Hutcheon evaluating the growth of the cacao clone Scavina-6 and two other Amelonado genotypes at full sunlight, verified that the former is more tolerant to radiation than the Amelonados.

The fact that GA 3 applied to NF leaves in the F-2 stage does not promote a reduction effect on the duration of the apex dormancy period reinforces the hypothesis divpire the apical dominance, at this stage, is due to competition by nutrients instead of the presence of hormonal inhibitors in the leaves Abo-Hamed et al.

Under field conditions, the total potential contribution of photosynthesis of the oldest leaves would be cacqo reduced as a consequence of mutual shading in the crown interior Machado and Hardwick, From these preliminary results it can be concluded that vissertation behavior of the plant as a whole, and the root system in particular, is different from the traditional cropping areas in which irrigation depends on rainfall.

The wetted area, after 2 h of irrigation, reached 0. Under natural conditions the tree can reach 20 to 25 m in height Lachenaud et al.

Cocoa and Development in Cote D’Ivoire

Cacao is a shade tolerant species, in which appropriate shading leads to relatively high photosynthetic rates, growth and seed yield. Incompatibility in cacao was first reported by Poundwho verified the occurrence of changes from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility during certain periods of the year.


dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

Varieties of the Forastero group are widely cropped due to their high yields and resistance to diseases. On the other hand, the effects triggered by dry periods followed by rain on the apical bud activity seem to occur through modifications of the ABA: The increase at all irradiances tested occurred in the presence of up to 10 mM of N, but above that concentration it leveled off.

Productivity indices, organic material models and sustainability over ten years.

Cacao market – Dissertation – Laetitia Rakotoson

This condition is maintained during leaf expansion until they enter the stage period of fast greening beginning of stage I-1when the stem: Leite, ; unpublished results. The maturity phase begins with the emission of plagiotropic branches that form the tree crown.

As an example, Malaysia has replaced cacao cacak with oil palm, and Indonesia has become less and less interested in producing cacao. This would cause the accumulation of ABA in the apex and, consequently, the imposition of apical bud inactivity at least in part of the interflush period. In its natural habitat wild cacao grows under shade trees, but with a low pod production Murray and Nichols, since the shade trees compete with cacao for water, nutrients and light Bonaparte, Therefore, in cacao flowers, ABA seems to be the primary inductor of abscission, while ethylene, although accelerating abscission does not seem to be required for the process Aneja et al.

Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia are just next to Cote d’Ivoire and they have been hit by the ebola viruse so neighbouring countries should feel concerned.

Ecophysiology of the cacao tree

However, most of the cacao experiments involving cohe and fertilizers show that shade reduces the responses to fertilizer applications Alvim, and such conditions are dissetation economically justifiable Beer, For cacao grown in southeastern Bahia the flowering, fruiting and pod growth patterns show low flushing in June to September Cazorla et al. In a shade lw manurial experiment in Ghana strong reductions in yield were observed due to shading Ahenkorah et al.


Bulletin of the United States National Museum. Okali and Owusu observed that leaf temperatures of unshaded cacao seedlings are higher than the shaded ones, and the transpiration rate is usually at its maximum. A better understanding of the factors involved in floral abscission can be of great horticultural value Aneja et al.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

The most important determinant parameters of cacao yield are related to i light interception, photosynthesis and capacity of distributing photoassimilate, ii maintenance respiration and iii pod morphology and seed fermentation Zuidema et al. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. This is exemplified by the internal competition between flowers and pods Alvim,in spite of the small total energy expenditure for flowering Valle et al.

Cacao market

Rain Water Cistern Syst. Taylor SJ, Hadley P Relation between root and shoot growth in cocoa Theobroma cacao grown under different shade regimes. ABA induces branch quiescence or alternatively helps xote maintain the branch in the non-active state. Alternatively, the application of growth promoters GA 3 or zeatin reduces the duration of the subsequent quiescence stage of the apex.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

However, after achieving approximately one to 1. The disserttation of maximum water loss of a new flush is only reached when the leaves are totally expanded, stomata completely developed and the leaves horizontally positioned Abo-Hamed et al. Alvim considered that harvest can be influenced by the rain distribution that occurred six months before its beginning.