Clitoridectomy is the removal of the clitoris. Women’s Enews provides women-focused news: The author notes the potential shortcomings of the memorandum such as the lack of commitment to protection of females displayed by the memo. They wanted one that was more likely to convey the pain and horror of the procedure. Women’s Low Status and Power. The different types of procedures used are described in detail, with particular attention paid to the practice of infibulation. Shannon Brownlee, et al.

Shannon Brownlee, et al. World Health Organization, The author examines the importance of the terminology used when dealing with this procedure. Women’s Studies Links to search engines, databases, organizations, internet resources, publications, and other resources, historical sites, health-related sites, etc, can be found at: Physical Violence Against Women. The reasons traditionally advanced are religion, hygiene, and sexual control of women.

Doctor Toubia argues that physicians should not perform reinfibulation on women because it is physically harmful. They are both used to be seen as more desirable.

annotated bibliography on fgm

Links and Annotated Bibliographies. Randall Professor of Law and Web Editor.

Female Genital Mutilation

And in some cultures, if a woman is raped, she may be forced to marry her attacker or sometimes she is killed to protect the family honor. In many countries, there is a cultural bias against women. However, the author shows that often the reasons asserted are not persuasive reasons for allowing this practice to continue.


While anntoated United States had not formally passed legislation to prohibit the practice of female genital mutilation, it has taken steps to prevent its occurrence. Violence Against WomenWorld Watch, vol. It is a long withstanding cultural tradition that people do not want to break.

The author gives recommendations for changing the United States asylum laws.

annotated bibliography on fgm

Australia and Qnnotated Zealand. Even more difficult, according to the author, is determining the rights of consenting adult women, some of whom desire to be reinfibulated after childbirth. The author examines all the possible arguments that could be raised constitutionally for not prohibiting female genital mutilation in the United States and gives persuasive counter arguments. Once the child is born, the woman often goes through a process of reinfibulation.

They provide many explanations for why this practice occurs throughout many of these countries which include sexual, sociological, hygiene, health, and religious reasons.

Female Genital Mutilation in the United States: Lenihan, A Physician’s Dilemma: This is done to decrease a woman’s ability to achieve orgasm, in the hopes to keep her from having sex.

The legal response of other countries is briefly examined. What remains annotated the labia majora is sewn shut, leaving a small opening only so large as to allow the passage of urine and menstrual blood.

It provides the historical roots to many of the beliefs about the necessity of the practice. There are many causes of why female genital mutilation occurs that are social, cultural, and thought of as religious. Send questions and comments to: Women’s Studies Links to search engines, databases, organizations, internet resources, publications, and other resources, historical sites, health-related sites, etc, can be found at: The practice of clitoridectomy was used to “cure” a variety of female disorders, such as lesbianism and excessive masturbation.


The United States has not. Women’s Low Status and Power. It concentrates on the practice of genital mutilation in Africa.

Female Genital Mutilation

While the procedure is not ritualistically practiced in bkbliography United States, doctors receive request to perform the annotatted. News We Can Use provides women-focused news: The publication also provided information about the different types of procedures of female genital mutilation. Female genital mutilation is both a health issue and a women’s rights issue. However, she argues that such defenses should not be allowed because it would undermine the purposes of the legislation.

She argues that the procedure should be called mutilation, because that is exactly what it is.